While pre-dreadnoughts were adopted worldwide, there were no clashes between pre-dreadnought battleships until the very end of their period of dominance. , In January 1909 Austro-Hungarian admirals circulated a document calling for a fleet of four dreadnoughts. Dreadnought used steam turbines for propulsion, giving her a top speed of 21 knots, against the 18 knots typical of the pre-dreadnought battleships. European navies remained dominant in the pre-dreadnought era. She was sold to Turkey in 1913.  Its navy severely limited by the Treaty of Versailles, Germany did not participate in this three-way naval building competition. The term 'pre-dreadnought' was applied in retrospect, to describe the capital ships built during the decade and a half before the launch of HMS Dreadnought in 1906. Type of battleship with a primary battery of large, uniform-caliber guns, to distinguish them from earlier mixed caliber battleships.  Something similar lay behind the Japanese move towards heavier guns; at Tsushima, Japanese shells contained a higher than normal proportion of high explosive, and were fused to explode on contact, starting fires rather than piercing armour. The Royal Navy remained the world's largest fleet, though both Britain's traditional naval rivals and the new European powers increasingly asserted themselves against its supremacy. The dreadnought (also spelled dreadnaught) was the predominant type of battleship in the early 20th century. The German strategy was, therefore, to try to provoke an engagement on favourable terms: either inducing a part of the Grand Fleet to enter battle alone, or to fight a pitched battle near the German coast, where friendly minefields, torpedo boats, and submarines could even the odds.  This programme was started slowly (in part because of a desire to learn lessons from Jutland), and never fulfilled entirely. Canopus redeemed herself at the Battle of the Falkland Islands, but only when grounded to act as a harbour-defence vessel; she fired at extreme range (13,500 yards) on the German cruiser SMS Gneisenau, and while the only hit was from an inert practice shell which had been left loaded from the previous night (the 'live' shells of the salvo broke up on contact with water; one inert shell ricocheted into one of Gneisenau's funnels), this certainly deterred Gneisenau'. The German navy, for instance, generally used a lighter calibre than the equivalent British ships, e.g. [h] Fisher is often credited as the creator of the dreadnought and the father of the United Kingdom's great dreadnought battleship fleet, an impression he himself did much to reinforce. The pre-dreadnought developed from the ironclad battleship. Within five years, new battleships outclassed Dreadnought herself. Fisher's mania for speed culminated in his suggestion for HMS Incomparable, a mammoth, lightly armoured battlecruiser. Growth in size of battleship designs from 1905 onwards, showing the dreadnought's rapid growth between 1905 and 1920, prior to the, The concept of an all-big-gun ship had been in development for several years before, At very close ranges, a projectile fired from a gun follows a flat trajectory, and the guns can be aimed by pointing them at the enemy.  This lighter armour was to prevent high-explosive shells from wrecking the superstructure of the ship. In the Baltic Sea, action was largely limited to convoy raiding and the laying of defensive minefields. Her innovative steam turbine engines also made her faster. The British Neptune-class battleship staggered the wing turrets, so all ten guns could fire on the broadside, a feature also used by the German Kaiser class. 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